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Comprehensibility of pharmaceutical pictograms in patient population in Albania

  • At: PPR 2022 (2022)
  • Type: Poster
  • Poster code: PM-21
  • By: HOTI, Ela (University Of Medicine Tirana)
  • Co-author(s): Ela Hoti, Associate Professor, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University Of Medicine Tirana
    Fabiola Noga, Pharmacist, research collaborate , Community Pharmacy
    Silvi Dedja, Pharmacist
    Ledjan Malaj



  • Abstract:

    Background: Pharmaceutical pictograms, defined as visual signs, contain medicine-related information with specific instructions and precautions regarding medicine use. Hence, pictograms used as a complement to written and verbal information can be a useful instrument in pharmaceutical care in enhancing patient adherence to treatment regimens.
    Purpose: To assess patients’ comprehensibility of pharmaceutical pictograms.
    Methods: A questionnaire approach was used for this study. The survey instrument was developed containing 18 pictograms present in pharmaceutical products in Albanian market. The pictograms were presented to the participants without subtitles so that the comprehensibility of the pictograms could be assessed. The study was conducted among community pharmacies in two different regions, including patients of both genders aged 21 years and above. Relationship between participants demographic characteristics and comprehensibility of pictograms was assessed.
    Results: The study included 80 fully completed questionnaires from patients. The comprehensibility of pharmaceutical pictograms in this study ranged from a minimum of 12% to 84%. Six of the chosen pictograms in this study met the comprehension criterion of 67% specified by the International Organisation for Standardisation 3864. No significant association was found about participant’s gender impact on pictogram comprehensibility. With regard to the level of education and age it was shown that participants with a higher education level and participants aged more than 30 years old had a better comprehensibility of pharmaceutical pictograms.
    Conclusions: More than a few of pharmaceutical pictograms included in this study were not easily comprehended by participants. Further research is needed to assess the comprehensibility of pictograms by Albanian population in order to have culturally adapted pictograms.

Last update 4 October 2019

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