26 27

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Key considerations for educational leadership going forward include an increased recognition of the value of and need for interprofessional leadership training. Just as pharmacists must learn to lead across cultures, we must also learn to affect change across and within multiple health professions. In this respect, the countries where the education of pharmacists and pharmacy staff is only now emerging (e.g., Namibia) have a real opportunity to develop models that may be adaptable for others.

4.7 Publishing pharmacy education research and development

The pharmacy academic and education sector is growing to meet the human resource demands in settings where pharmacy education is developed, but also notably in regions such as sub-Saharan Africa where there is the greatest shortage of pharmacy personnel [14]. Pharmacy education is perhaps the only way to provide a sustainable approach to workforce solutions in ensuring quality medicines supply and pharmaceutical care. Research suggests that even in developed settings, educators will be in increased demand in the coming decade [33].

An essential part of this is demand is to ensure that these activities are well reported in the literature including journals such as Pharmacy Education.

Pharmacy Education is an online open-access international journal hosted, published by FIP and endorsed by the WHO, and focus on issues in pharmacy education. With a new editorial team who started at the end of 2011, including representation from the African region, a review was conducted sof the content of the journal, soon to be published in Pharmacy Education. This review confirmed that Pharmacy Education historically represents research and reports primarily from Europe (Figure 4.7). The journal is now engaging to a greater extent with the international audience by encouraging research manuscript submissions and inviting peer reviewers specifically from other regions.

An editorial decision was also made in 2012 to focus particularly on the main areas of publishing including original research, programme and assessment descriptions, and short reports (Figure 4.8). Pharmacy Education will no longer publish opinion pieces, essays, book reviews, or keynote lectures, but will continue to support conferences and symposia through the publication of abstracts. There will be continued efforts to ensure the quality of published works and support especially for new authors and researchers and those from the practice settings where formal education increasingly takes place.

Figure 4.7. First author reporting in Pharmacy Education since inception

of the journal by WHO region (2000-2011)

Figure 4.8. Volume of published articles by article type (2000- 2011)

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4.8 Summary and future steps

FIPEd is a global forum where educators, practitioners, policy makers and educational planners come together to share experiences, build consensus and drive global advocacy and policy for the transformation and development of pharmacy education.

PET aims to advocate, facilitate and design support tools for pharmacy education that are needs-based in their approach [34]. This will include post-registration in addition to preservice education.

Education strategies need to be flexible for the pre-existing and future needs of the community in order to optimise effectiveness. This further supports the importance of the adoption of a vision and action plan for global pharmacy education that is founded in local, regional, national and international needs for health care.

Future PET activities include the finalisation in 2013 of the FIP-WHO Global Survey of Pharmacy Schools, launch of the first resources made available through the UNITWIN Network in Global Pharmacy Education Development (GPhED) , the publication of an updated version of the FIP Quality Assurance Framework for Pharmacy Education, further validation and development of the GbCF, finalisation of the pharmacy support workforce competency survey and the compilation of leadership development resources.

References

1. The W1. International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP), United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), World Health Organization (WHO). Global Pharmacy Education Taskforce Action Plan 2008-2010. Available from: www.fip.org/education_taskforce/resources.

2. Lim Z, Anderson C, McGrath S. Professional skills development in a resource-poor setting: The case of pharmacy in Malawi. Int J Educ Dev. 2012; 32:654 64.

3. Frenk J, Chen L, Bhutta ZA et al. Health professionals for a new century: transforming education to strengthen health systems in an interdependent world. The Lancet, 2010; Vol. 376 No. 9756 pp 1923-1958.

4. Anderson C, Bates I and Brock T. Seven Billion Humans and 98 Trillion Medicine Doses. Am J Pharm Educ, 2011; 75(10): article 194.

5. Anderson C, Bates I, Brock T. Seven billion humans and 98 trillion medicine doses. Am J Pharm Educ. 2011; 75(10):194.

6. FIP Pharmacy Education Taskforce Advisory Group. Health professionals for a new century: Transforming education to strengthen health systems in an interdependent world. Lancet. 9 April 2011; 377(9773):1236-7.

7. Anderson C, Bates I, Futter B, Gal D, Rouse M, Whitmarsh S. Global perspectives of pharmacy education and practice. World Medical & Health Policy. 2010: 2(1):2.

8. International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP). Global pharmacy workforce and migration report: A call for action. The Hague, The Netherlands: FIP; 2006. Available from: http://www.fip.org/menu_ sitemap?page=hrfh_introduction.

9. Anderson C, Bates I, Beck D, Manasse Jr. HR, Mercer H, Rouse M et al. FIP roundtable consultation on pharmacy education: Developing a global vision and action plan. Int Pharm J. 2006; 20:12-13.

10. International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP). A global framework for quality assurance of pharmacy education (version 1.0). The Hague, The Netherlands: FIP; 2008.

11. International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) Pharmacy Education Taskforce. Quality assurance in pharmacy education: A cornerstone for strengthening the pharmacy workforce in India. 2nd Global Forum on Human Resources for Health. 2011.

12. Rouse M. Continuing professional development in pharmacy. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2004; 44(4):517-520.

13. Interprofessional Education Collaborative Expert Panel. Core competencies for interprofessional collaborative practice: Report of an expert panel. Washington, D.C.: Interprofessional Education Collaborative. 2011.

14. International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP). 2009 Global pharmacy workforce report. The Hague, The Netherlands: FIP; 2009.

15. International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP). FIP Statement of Professional Standards on Continuing Professional Development (2002, Nice). The Hague, The Netherlands: FIP, 2002.

16. Bruno A, Bates I, Brock T, Anderson C. Towards a global competency framework. Am J Pharm Educ. 2010; 74(3):56.

17. Bruno AF. The feasibility, development and validation of a global competency framework for pharmacy education [PhD Thesis]. London: University of London, The School of Pharmacy; 2011.

18. Mestrovic A, Stanicic Z, Hadziabdic M, Mucalo I, Bates I, Duggan C, et al. Individualized education and competency development of Croatian community pharmacists using the general level framework. Am J Pharm Educ. 2012; 76(2):23.

19. Mestrovic A, Stanicic Z, Hadziabdic M, Mucalo I, Bates I, Duggan C, et al. Evaluation of Croatian community pharmacists patient care competencies using the general level framework. Am J Pharm Educ. 2011; 75(2):36.

20. Coombes I, Avent M, Cardiff L, Bettenay K, Coombes J, Whitfield K, et al. Improvement in pharmacist s performance facilitated by an adapted competency-based general level framework. J of Pharm Prac and Res. 2010; 40(2):111-18.

21. Mills E, Farmer D, Bates I, Davies G, Webb D. The general level framework Use in primary care and community pharmacy to support professional development. Int J of Pharm Prac. 2008, 16:325-331.

22. Antoniou S, Webb DG, McRobbie D, Davies JG, Wright J, Quinn J, et al. A study of the general level framework: Results of the south of England competency study. Pharm Educ. 2005; 5:201-7.

23. Brown A, Cometto G, Cumbi A, et al. Mid-level health providers: A promising resource. Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica. 2011; 28(2):308-315.

24. Fulton BD, Scheffler RM, Sparkes SP, Auh EY, Vujicic M, Soucat A. Health workforce skill mix and task shifting in low income countries: A review of recent evidence. Human Resources For Health. 2011; 9(1):1-1.

25. Adams AJ, Martin SJ, Stolpe SF. Tech-check-tech : A review of the evidence on its safety and benefits. Am J of Health Syst Pharm. 1 October 2011; 68:1834-5.

26. Myers CE. Opportunities and challenges related to pharmacy technicians in supporting optimal pharmacy practice models in health systems. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 15 June 2011; 68(12):1128-36.

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WHO region

Eastern Mediterranean

SE AsiaAfricaWestern Paci´ČücAmericasEurope

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

Country Report

Editorial

Education article

Not available

Keynote lecture

In focus

Book review

Conference proceedings

Essay and opinion

Short report

Program m e description

Original research

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%