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Do pharmacy practice standards effectively describe behaviour? Reviewing practice standards using a behavioural specificity framework

  • At: PPR SIG 2021 (2021)
  • Type: Digital
  • By: MILL, Deanna (University of Western Australia , Australia)
  • Co-author(s): Deanna Mill1 Danielle D’Lima2 Amy Page1,3,4 Jacinta Johnson5,6 Kenneth Lee1 Sandra Salter1 Liza Seubert1 Rhonda Clifford1. School of Allied Health UWA1, Perth, WA, Australia; CBC, Dept of Clin, Ed and Health Psych, UCL2, London, United Kingdom; CMUS, Monash Univ3 Pharmacy Dept, The Alfred4, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; UniSA Clin and Health Sci, UniSA5, SA Pharmacy, SA Health6, Adelaide, SA, Australia
  • Abstract:


    Guidelines and practice standards should express behaviours explicitly so they can be interpreted, enacted and measured with ease. Behavioural specificity within pharmacy practice standards has not been quantified. No behavioural specificity frameworks have been adapted to evaluate behaviours described in practice standards. The AACTT framework specifies behaviour in terms of the: Action to be performed, Actor who performs the action, Context where the action occurs, Target who the action is performed with/for and Time when the action is performed (AACTT).1 Adapting this framework to evaluate practice standards may highlight areas for improvement.


    1) Develop a process for applying the AACTT framework to the evaluation of behaviours in a practice standard. 2) Determine if behaviours described in the Australian Professional Practice Standards for pharmacists specify Action, Actor, Context, Target and Time (AACTT).


    Two researchers independently reviewed the scope and structure of the practice standards. Two researchers identified and extracted the action statements (behaviours) verbatim and applied definitions for the AACTT criteria to each behaviour. Each statement was coded based on whether AACTT criteria were met. Through an iterative process, researchers modified and developed definitions further, curated examples and developed a codebook. Final definitions were then applied to all action statements by one researcher and 20% check by a second.


    A process and codebook to apply AACTT criteria to evaluate practice standards were developed. Application of the framework identified 768 independent behaviours, of which 714 (93%) required further clarification of the action, none specified an actor, 25 (3%) specified context, 131 (17%) specified target and 88 (11%) specified time.


    The successful development of a novel reproducible process and codebook to evaluate behavioural specificity could be used by practice standard and guideline developers in the pharmacy profession, and beyond, to improve interpretability, useability and adherence to these documents.

Last update 4 October 2019

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